Tag Archives: #Followership

MINDSET OF GENERATION Y

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Employers need to encourage and foster a mindset in their youngest employees that is receptive to constructive criticism. Gen Yers need to understand that not all assignments will be high-level and that salary is commensurate with experience. Managers need to understand that this generation wants to, and can, make a difference to keep the country competitive and service driven.

Gen Yers feel entitled to cutting-edge technology. These young workers feel that companies that do not invest in technology “think little of their employees and customers.” Technology helps employees work faster and better. If a company does not have a budget for upgrades, Gen Yers can be asked to experiment with what technology the company does have to try and make the best use of it.

Gen Yers feel entitled to a conflict-free workplace. This is simply unrealistic and managers need to prepare this generation to deal with conflict in a productive and positive way.

This generation feels entitled to daily feedback. While managers do not have the time to provide the same level of feedback as Gen Yers’ “helicopter parents,” all feedback should be built around positive and negative critical incidents, and it should be delivered close to the time of the incident. Feedback should be clear, specific, and concrete, and can be formal or informal, like a pat on the back, or an IM. This regular dose of feedback is good for all generations.

To older generations, the most outrageous demand of Generation Y is a high salary. Employers who undercut the wages of the young workers fuel this mindset. These employees, like all employees, should be paid what they are worth. Pay does not always have to mean cash. Other enticements, such as job flexibility, can sweeten the deal.

Managers should consider what Gen Yers need, rather than what they want.

COMMUNICATION WITH GENY

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The most jarring of Gen Y’s workplace behaviors is their connectedness. They are — they expect to be — in constant communication with their friends by phone, by e-mail, by instant messaging, and by text messages. They are the first digital generation, and

Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 6.00.34 pmthose who preceded them must accept that the way we communicate has changed. While the rest of us learn a second, technological language, Gen Yers are native speakers of a language with a different grammar, vocabulary, and etiquette; cross-generational misunderstandings, confusion and resentment often result. In addition, electronic communication has led Gen Y to become impatient with what strikes others as only minor delays. They expect instant messaging. Since so many of their friendships are electronic rather than face-to-face, they have not acquired the ability to read inflections and body language, an ability that is a key part of emotional intelligence. The relative anonymity of electronic communication has fostered an egalitarian style of communication whose informality often offends people.

Employers who focus on impatience, lack of people skills, multitasking, and casual language will miss the unique contribution Gen Y brings to the workplace: their technological fluency can create new possibilities for the company and add global perspectives. The authors advise the following:

  • Recognize that the Gen Y preference for electronic rather than paper communications is both ecologically sound and cost-effective.
  • Build intergenerational relationships and improve performance and productivity by letting Gen Y employees teach communication technology to older coworkers.
  • Take advantage of Gen Y’s ability to gather information from the whole world.
  • Allow them to multitask because they will do it anyway.
  • Model good communication form in the workplace by using “I” statements rather than “you” statements.
  • Set the limits to teach what is and is not appropriate professional behavior.
  • Let Gen Y employees hone leadership and mentoring skills by allowing them to use their technological expertise.
  • Build social relationships through emotionally intelligent communication.

Factors of happiness

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According to Pryce-Jones, there are five main factors of happiness in the workplace, dubbed the 5Cs: Contribution, Conviction, Culture, Commitment, and Confidence. These factors form the core of happiness at work, which the author Screen Shot 2015-08-26 at 9.15.02 pmcalls “achieving your potential.” These factors are associated with three additional themes: Pride, Trust, and Recognition. When the 5Cs come together in an employee, it is likely that she will be happy at work and that her productivity will be substantially higher. The major task for business leaders is to understand these major themes and how they can work toward achieving them.

CONTRIBUTION

The first and most important of the 5 Cs is Contribution, defined by Pryce-Jones as what a person does in the workplace and what his view of it is. An employee’s sense of Contribution is shaped by both the employee (Inside-Out Contribution) and his colleagues (Outside-In Contribution).

Inside-Out Contribution

Inside-Out Contribution has four main components, the first two of which relate to getting things done. First, a strong sense of Contribution will result when a person reaches the big goals that she sets for herself in her working life, such as getting the promotion she wants, landing her ideal job, and so forth. Pryce-Jones warns that it is important to set goals that are not only realistic but also in harmony with the larger aims and values of the company; happiness at work must occur within the context of a working community. However, it is also important for a businessperson to ensure that the goals she is working toward are goals in which she truly believes. If the goals are not really hers, then she will have a much harder time sticking to them, and consequently she will suffer from a reduced sense of Contribution.

The happiest people stretch themselves with challenging goals that answer to their talents and interests; they are genuinely committed to those goals as ends in themselves; and they find pleasure in the tasks necessary to achieve those ends. This crucial aspect of Contribution requires great self-awareness and the discipline to identify the right goals. These goals must be clear and concrete enough to determine the objectives that need to be reached along the way.

Having clarity about objectives–the steps a businessperson needs to take to reach his goals–is the second main component of Inside-Out Contribution. For example, if a businessperson’s goal is to become an executive, then good objectives would include earning an MBA, taking on higher-profile projects in his current position, and so forth. According to Pryce-Jones, goals and objectives need to work together. Without clear objectives, goals remain abstract and frustratingly distant. The goals must also be appealing enough for a businessperson to pursue objectives that she may not find very attractive.

The third component of Inside-Out Contribution is the ability to address any issues with one’s colleagues and employers. Happy employees are more likely to make suggestions and address problems that matter to them, thus providing more open, honest communication and Contributing to social capital.

Honest communication leads directly to the fourth component: the feeling of job security. Lack of open communication can lead to gossip and uncertainty, resulting in a decline in Contribution. This can be avoided when individuals have enough confidence in their colleagues to raise issues honestly and expect direct answers. Job security also demands that businesspeople make an effort to be mindful of their job situations, objectively considering the requirements of their position and their ability to meet them–and if necessary, discussing the situation with colleagues or bosses. Good communication provides businesspeople with concrete metrics on their performance and prevents them from feeling uncertain about their positions. Like the other components of Inside-Out Contribution, this helps to ensure that they remain on-task and focused on their work.

Outside-in Contribution

While the four elements of Inside-Out Contribution are the wellspring of Contribution, they are complemented by the four elements of Outside-In Contribution. Outside-In Contribution begins where Inside-Out Contribution leaves off–namely, with the feeling of being heard by colleagues and bosses. As a component of Contribution, listening makes the most noticeable difference. According to Pryce-Jones, those who feel most heard have a much higher sense of overall Contribution than those who do not.

Cultivating listening skills in the workplace will build the Contribution of colleagues. A person with good listening skills will:

  1. heed what the other person says.
  2. interpret non-verbal signals to arrive at an understanding of what is implicit in the conversation.
  3. affirm the other person at the same time.

This level of listening ability requires a great deal of mindfulness and discipline, but it brings substantial rewards in terms of psychological and social capital.

The second element of Outside-In Contribution is the reception of positive feedback, or what the author terms “positive feedforward.” In order to be effective, positive, encouraging comments must be specific to an individual’s work; they must focus on what that person does well (what he should keep doing); and they should be frequent but not regular enough to seem automatic and disingenuous. Businesspeople should also make an effort to ask others for positive feedback, not only to receive it but also to confirm the acceptability of doing so, creating a climate friendly to “feedforward.” Like listening, this is a particularly difficult skill to develop.

The final two components of Outside-In Contribution are the feeling of being appreciated at work and the feeling of being respected by one’s boss. Appreciation and praise are clearly linked, but appreciation tends to result from effort–how hard one tries — rather than ability; it recognizes that someone has good intentions and has made sacrifices. A CEO pausing to thank an employee by name for keeping the floor clean would be an example falling under appreciation.

Respect, according to Pryce-Jones, seems to emanate from one’s demeanor and general way of being with others. Body language, eye contact, and attentive engagement all indicate respect. Perhaps the most important part of showing respect is taking care with basic manners, such as saying thank you and hello. These habits can further the sense that a businessperson respects her colleagues, and she is likely to earn respect in return. This fosters an atmosphere of respect throughout the company.

CONVICTION

Conviction has the second-strongest correlation to happiness at work. Conviction means that a businessperson thinks he performs well in his job, and that he is motivated to keep pressing on even when circumstances are difficult, as he ultimately thinks he is making a difference.

At the core of Conviction is motivation, or the ability to persevere with the work. According to Pryce-Jones, motivation is innate in human beings, but certain conditions need to be met in order for a person to maximize it. Self-Determination Theory states that motivation is comprised of three elements:

  1. Competence: engagement in something a person likes and can manipulate effectively.
  2. Connection: participation in healthy working relationships.
  3. Choice: the freedom to choose activities that accord with one’s interests.

Using these three elements, it is possible to gauge a person’s motivation level and identify where it may be lacking. A businessperson’s competencecan be gauged by identifying how often she experiences moments of “flow”: the extremely satisfying times when she is so engaged in her work that she hardly notices time passing. Connection can be assessed by the level of reciprocity that she enjoys with her colleagues, or the likelihood that a favor will be returned. Choice is measured by the attitude that a businessperson has toward her job; is it a burden, or does she go the extra mile instinctively? If a businessperson is not interested in the work to begin with–that is, if the work is not something that she truly values–then she must force herself to make personal sacrifices. A bad attitude is a sign of lack of Choice. Only when all of these elements work together are people able to tap into their full capacity for motivation.

Resilience is another essential component of Conviction, as it keeps a businessperson going during difficult times. A person’s resilience depends heavily upon his nature and experiences. For instance, people who grew up during the Depression were found to be much more resilient than those who grew up in economic booms. However, there are some strategies that can be used to improve one’s resilience, regardless of past experiences. The most effective of these strategies is proactive coping: being mindful of what difficulties might occur in the future so that one can be prepared; interpreting events in a positive light whenever possible; and viewing risks as opportunities rather than as evils.

People with high levels of Conviction feel that they are contributing to the betterment of the world through their work. Therefore, one way to develop a sense of Conviction is to be aware of the impact of one’s work.

CULTURE

The third element of the 5Cs is Culture. It refers to how well a businessperson fits within the ethos and dynamic of the workplace.

The Culture of a business can be represented by a continuum between “fixed” Culture–meaning that there are more rules and the work is structured–and “fluid” Culture–meaning that there is more variety and freedom for the individual, and roles are more dynamic and loosely defined. Depending on his personality and the type of environment he is actually working in, a businessperson will either find the business culture more enabling (in which case he will find the Culture either “systematic” or “organic”) or more restrictive (in which case he will find the Culture “static” or “chaotic”).

Within this continuum, Culture can be broken down into several elements. On the more fluid side–that is, among the elements that are more variable and less determined by top-down structure–is a businessperson’s love for his job and his relationship with colleagues. The degree to which a person loves his job depends on whether he is in the right role and whether the business’s place in the fixed-fluid continuum suits his personality. A person’s relationship with his colleagues depends on both the person and his colleagues, and how effective they are in forging relationships with one another.

The more fixed aspects of culture–the ones that vary less–are related to the values of the organization, the fairness of the company’s work ethos, and the amount of control employees have over what they do. These factors are determined by parameters that the company sets. This is especially true of fairness: if employees are systematically treated unfairly, there is not that much an individual can do. On the other hand, it is possible for one employee to have some effect on other employees. For instance, a businessperson can make an effort to be mindful of what her values are, and to think about how her values might coalesce with those of the company. Likewise, a businessperson can achieve more control in the workplace by learning to say “no” to people, or by seeking more responsibility (and thus more influence) on decision making.

COMMITMENT

The fourth C is Commitment, which refers to an employee’s general level of engagement with work. Commitment can be broken down into two elements: believing in what one does, and having positive feelings related to one’s work.

People who are happy at work find their work more meaningful and more interesting; they are more in tune with the purpose of their company; and they feel more positive emotions. Individuals have some control over each of these aspects, but they require a good deal of reflection and self-knowledge. Specifically, an employee needs to identify what she sees as her overall purpose (or what she is trying to achieve in her work) and then find work that is meaningful in a corresponding way. This will be most effective if the employee can identify a calling for herself, something that she is deeply interested in for its own sake.

Another factor in enabling strong Commitment is the effectiveness of the mission statement of the organization. Companies will have much more success recruiting and retaining committed workers if they have a clearly articulated, concrete, and distinctive vision. In addition, their employees will have a better chance of feeling that they are doing something worthwhile and interesting. They will also be able to link their role in the firm with their sense of calling, and they will be more likely to experience positive feelings, or emotional highs.

CONFIDENCE

The fifth and final C is Confidence. Confident employees believe more in themselves, are more productive, and are significantly more energetic than those who lack confidence. Confidence is comprised of three parts:

  1. high productivity
  2. strong self-belief
  3. good understanding of one’s role

High productivity is the more solid, dependable part of Confidence. If a businessperson has a history of completing tasks, then it will be difficult for any momentary doubts or difficult events to shake his Confidence. To achieve happiness at work, it is therefore extremely important to learn strategies of self-control and to avoid or manage procrastination as much as possible. The more things a person gets done, the higher his core level of Confidence will be.

Self-belief relates to a businessperson’s perception of his ability to perform tasks and achieve goals. A businessperson’s self-belief is formed by:

  • observing evidence that encourages the perception that he can get things done.
  • seeing co-workers who seem to have things in common with him succeed.
  • encouragement from others.
  • refusing to panic and interpret his experiences in a negative light–for instance, by reading signs of nervousness as a measure of personal failure rather than of stressful circumstances.

The final part of Confidence, understanding one’s job, means that the businessperson feels her job has not been a disappointment; that it aligns with the vision she has for her career; that she wants to keep doing it; and that she would refer the company to a close friend.

In order to achieve strong performance, these three elements need to be exhibited in moderation–over-confidence can be as big a problem as lack of Confidence. It is therefore necessary for businesspeople to seek out challenges that will stretch them and build their level of Confidence, while simultaneously preparing for situations that might undermine it. They can do this by making sure they have the right strategies and support to minimize the impact of problematic situations on the more vulnerable elements of Confidence.

Strong self-belief and a good understanding of one’s role are points of vulnerability for Confidence. When troubles surface, a businessperson will feel these two elements drain away first, leaving him doubtful and indecisive.

INNOVATION

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INNOVATION: THE CLASSIC TRAPS

Rosabeth Moss Kanter

While every company champions innovation in theory, very few do a good job of being truly innovative. Not only that, the broad championing of innovation seems to run in cycles, with the majority of companies on the innovation bandwagon at the same time.

Unfortunately, most companies have not done well in learning from their mistakes when trying to innovate, and so are doomed to make them again when the next innovation craze comes along. The good news is that there are common traps companies can learn to avoid to make sure their innovative zeal does not get derailed the next time an innovation wave hits.

*Strategy mistakes: Many companies only consider innovation opportunities that promise very high and very fast returns, overlooking the smaller and less obvious opportunities that could yield even better results. Companies also tend to focus on product innovation and overlook the benefits that come from process innovation. However, by creating an “innovation pyramid” of potential opportunities, companies can cast a wider net and allocate resource investments incrementally. This practice also opens the door to include both product and process innovations, inviting ideas from across an organization.

*Process mistakes: Innovation requires a flexible set of processes; however, all too often companies subject innovation to the same set of planning, budget, and review rules the existing business must conform to. This approach stalls and stifles innovation. One solution is to set aside resources to address innovation whenever an opportunity comes along to allow resources to flourish outside of standard processes.

*Structure mistakes: Creating a separate business unit chartered with innovation can help provide the kind of flexibility innovation requires, but unless the two units are communicative and coordinate well, there can be a serious “clash of cultures” that creates resentment and stalls progress. Leaders can avoid this pitfall by facilitating strong communication and nurturing relationships between the two units.

*Skills mistakes: Strong interpersonal skills are required to both lead and champion an innovation effort. However, leadership is often put in the hands of technical experts instead. Companies should select leaders who are well versed in people skills and good at building strong teams.

Leaders : INSPIRE and MOTIVATE

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THE ABILITY TO INSPIRE AND MOTIVATE

Most people work at only 40 to 50 percent of their capacity, and leaders have to be able to push them beyond their usual performance and get the best out of them. To do this, they have to find out what motivates their employees. There are six specific motivational factors that can turn an average employee into an exceptional one:

Session by Anubha on Leadership & Motivation for First Time Leader role

Session by Anubha on Leadership & Motivation for Upper Middle Mgmt team in Leading Bank

  1. Employees need to be challenged and find interest in their work. A great leader finds work that keeps their employees engaged.
  2. Employees appreciate open communication and they like to understand how the work they are doing fits the company’s mission. Leaders should explain to employees how their roles affect the company.
  3. Employees are more likely to take an interest in their tasks when they are given responsibility and held accountable.
  4. Employees want the opportunity to advance and learn more.
  5. Employees are somewhat motivated by money.
  6. Working conditions are also important.

Employees also have three emotional needs — dependence,independence, and interdependence. If all of these are met, employees will stay motivated and inspired.

Leaders must also be able to delegate tasks to their employees not only because it gives them a sense of ownership and responsibility, but also because it frees up the leaders to concentrate on high-value tasks. However, it is crucial that the right employees are given the right tasks — their abilities must match the responsibility of the task. If tasks are delegated to the wrong people, it will lead to failure.

Leaders also motivate and inspire by example. Leaders can accept nothing less than the best from themselves and the companies they work for. They must commit 100 percent of themselves to their work. The more excited and enthusiastic leaders are the more excited and enthusiastic their employees will be. Through constant encouragement, leaders empower their employees.

THE FIRST MONTH ON THE JOB

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The first month on the job should be spent studying the office culture and refining a new corporate persona. Before the first day of a new job, it is important to contact a direct supervisor, introduce oneself, and ask if there are any pertinent materials that should be read or studied to become more accustomed to the culture.

Every workplace has policies about expense reports, health insurance, retirement plans, and flexible work or teleworking opportunities. It is important to read and reread all information about how such plans work. It can be a wise strategy to avoid a vacation until being at a new company for at least three months. Young professionals need to establish their work ethic before asking for time off, and to be perceived as serious about the job opportunity. When asked to help out on a project, We advises college graduates to be sure to listen, communicate, and be respectful. No one likes a twenty-something know-it-all, but people love team players.

Additionally, suggests that newly employed college graduates should never doubt the power of observation. The first month is a prime time to figure out how things work at a company, such as how many personal breaks and emails are tolerated, how to order office supplies, how to dress for company events, etc. Similarly, understanding colleagues’ priorities is also important. For example, by spotting family photographs on supervisors’ desks, it is possible to assume they value family life.

The first month is also the right time to thoroughly meet and interact with new colleagues. Young professionals can make a positive first impression if they make eye contact, smile, firmly shake hands, and make notes about people and their roles in the company.

Office lingo can sometimes seem like a foreign language when first entering a new work environment. Deciphering such lingo means reading between the lines. For example, when someone says, “I’ve got too much on my plate,” it could mean that have too many projects to work on, or just want it to seem this way, and want someone to take on one of these assignments. Understanding such cues can help a young professional successfully integrate into an office.

A person’s desk speaks volumes about his or her performance and character. It is important that this space is kept neat and organized from day one. Similarly, it is helpful to take the time to quickly remove items from an email inbox, cross off to-do lists, and to remove emails as soon as they are answered. All of this will keep the mind sharp and show employers that a job is being taken seriously.

VISUAL AIDS in PRESENTATION SKILLS

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Visual aids clarify information and transmit it more efficiently. As the saying goes, “A picture is worth a thousand words.” They also anchor the presentation and keep the presenter on task. Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 7.25.37 pmAudiences enjoy visual aids, no matter how charismatic the speaker. They also help those who are visual rather than auditory or kinesthetic learners.

Although seemingly outdated, traditional visual aids such as flip charts and overheads still have their place. Flip charts are large and can be difficult to transport, but every good speaker should know how to use them. They do not need a darkened room or any supporting technology. Good charts are few in number, simple, and bold. Practicing on plain paper ahead of the presentation will help.

There are a few tricks for flip charts:

*Leaving a blank page between each one used will prevent bleed through.

*Writing done lightly in pencil ahead of the presentation will not be visible to the audience. This is useful trick for notes, such as reminder of what’s on the next page.

*Flip charts can be reused if they are handled properly between engagements.

*Adding color is good, but only one accent color should be used along with black.

*Perforated flip charts allow pages to be removed and hung around the room. Post-it-note style charts are also available.

Many speakers use handouts because they ensure every audience member can see the main points. They also provide a reference for later. However, if the audience reads a handout instead of watching the presentation, they can distract from the speaker.

Most speakers today use LCD projectors attached to computers. The price of projectors and projector bulbs, once prohibitively expensive, has fallen significantly. Laskowski also carries a set of portable speakers that plug into his computer. The projector should be given a dry run before the presentation, ensuring that it is positioned the proper distance from the screen, that everything is connected properly, and that there are no technical problems.

No matter the medium, visual aids must be large and clear. For an audience 30 feet away, a 24-point type might suffice, but at 75 or 100 feet, the speaker needs letters as large as 48 point. Also, whether visual aids are as low-tech as flip charts or as high-tech as LCD projects, there is no substitute for practicing, including a quick run through the visual aids on site before the performance.

GIVING AND RECEIVING FEEDBACK

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Businesspeople need feedback to guide their careers and direct business results. Feedback is given for only two reasons–to maintain or change behaviors. Positive Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 7.15.55 pmfeedback is a milestone that lets employees know they are on the right track. Negative feedback helps them understand how to get back on the right track. To ensure tasks that are done effectively and in a timely manner are repeated, positive feedback must be given to those performing the tasks and appreciation must be expressed.

When people receive negative feedback, they usually become defensive. They will typically go through five stages before accepting the information: shock, anger, resistance, acceptance, and then hopefulness. To reduce a recipient’s defensiveness, the person giving negative feedback can be specific, focusing on actions, consequences of the actions, and alternative methods and behaviors for future performance.

USING THE FEEDBACK FORMULA

When a businessperson has established a trusting relationship with someone and secured permission to give him or her feedback, it should be done in less than two minutes. Short, direct messages are easier for recipients to hear and act on. The recipients might not like what is being said, but they will appreciate the candor with which it is being said. The Feedback Formula for saying anything to anyone uses the following eight steps:

  1. Explaining the topic of the conversation.
  2. Empathizing with the recipient.
  3. Describing the observed behavior.
  4. Defining the impact of the behavior.
  5. Asking the recipient for his or her observations of the situation.
  6. Suggesting a different behavior for the next time.
  7. Agreeing on next steps and improved processes.
  8. Expressing appreciation by saying “thank you.”

PERSUASION

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Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 7.02.26 pmBeing an effective speaker is considered a key executive competency, but it is also something of a dying art. People are relying more and more on digital communication, and studies show that listeners’ attention spans are getting shorter. Still, speaking is a more effective mode of communication than writing because vocal intonations help clarify meaning that gets lost when a message is written, and people focus their attention on the speaker.

McGowan finds there is a communications gender gap in the corporate world. Women have to walk a fine line between being seen as too empathetic or nice and being seen as bossy or inflexible. Men, on the other hand, do not have to deal with the same kinds of stereotypes. Women tend to back into their messages because they like to establish support for an idea before actually explaining it. Men tend to be less empathetic, so are often not as effective at explaining how an idea might help others.

But not all communication issues are gender based. People can be poor communicators because they focus too much on irrelevant details, make the same point over and over, rely on clichés, or continually edit what they just said, a habit called verbal backspacing. To help speakers overcome any quirks that keep them from being good communicators, McGowan recommends seven principles of persuasion:

1. The headline principle: Speakers should grab their audiences’ attention at the start.

2. The Scorsese principle: Speakers should create imagery with words to hold listeners’ attention

3. The pasta-sauce principle: Speakers should boil down their messages to make them strong and concise.

4. The no-tailgating principle: Speakers should talk slowly while thinking about what to say next.

5. The conviction principle: Speakers can show certainty with their words, tone, and eye contact.

6. The curiosity principle: Good conversationalists are interested in other people and what they have to say.

7. The Draper principle: Speakers should keep the conversation focused on their areas of strength.

To learn these principles and put them into practice, people can focus on learning and using one principle at a time. Individuals can study speakers on television to see how they display various principles, and they can evaluate their own use of the principles by reviewing recordings or videos of themselves speaking.

Liars : WHY & TYPES

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Anubha's session is well appreciated in Industry.

Anubha’s session is well appreciated in Industry.

Lying in the workplace is something that happens every day in every company. It has become common nature for people to use deception and lies to quietly sway the decision-making processes imperative for an organisation to succeed. My question is to you reader is : Why do people lie in the first place?

One theory about why people lie is that the need to lie is deeply rooted in the subconscious. Lying was a survival skill that kept dishonest early humans alive longer than honest ones. Lying is a skill that is learned rather than inherently known, and it is actually considered a milestone in brain function when lying is achieved by toddlers. Lying begins at a young age and keeps continuing on through teenage years and into adulthood.

Although almost everybody lies, there are four distinct types of liars seen in the workplace:

  • Occasional Liars:
      This is where most of the lying population falls. These people do not like lying, but will do it sometimes. They are very easy to spot in a lie.
  • Frequent Liars:

This group of people lies often. They are so practiced that their lies become harder to define.

  • Habitual Liars:

These types of liars lie all day. Lies become a part of their everyday communication.

  • Pathological Liars:

This group lies instinctively and not necessarily for personal gain. They also tend to believe what they are lying about.

Lies also happen at all levels of a company, including:

*Senior Leaders: This group has the most impact because their employees look to them for direction. Goman’s study found that this group tends to omit information or mislead employees from the whole truth.

*Managers: Managers are the people who are closest with employees. Unfortunately, the lies managers were most often observed making were ones regarding responsibility for the success or failure of a situation, and not keeping their promises.

*Colleagues: Many of the lies that employees make are small and do not result in huge consequences for the company. The biggest lies that employees make deal with backstabbing and unethical work.

The biggest liars in the workplace are varied and can come from any type of background. Differences include:

*Gender: Although both men and women lie, they lie differently from one another. Men are more likely to seek personal gain and will tell lies that make them look more impressive. Women will tell lies that revolve around themselves, but that focus directly on other people. They also tend to lie mostly to other women.

*Socioeconomic Class: In Goman’s study, people of a higher economic class were shown to be more likely to lie than those from a lower economic class.