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Wrap Up -Negotiation

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Once a successful agreement has been negotiated, there are a few final steps to take before considering the negotiation complete:

*Document the terms. Professionals must record where they ended so both parties have a shared understanding of the specifics. Both parties should review and agree to the document, and each party should retain a copy.

*Communicate to make sure there is an agreement. Everyone with decision rights should be consulted and the documentation and recommendations shared.

*Think through the implementation. Professionals should think about what steps will ensure a smooth transition from agreement to implementation.

*Put the agreement into action. Once the agreement is final, anyone involved should be briefed about the implementation, the intent behind it, what has been learned about counterparts and their interests, and any future risks.

Review What Happened

When the negotiation is finished, negotiators must take the opportunity to learn and improve their skills. They should set up a time to review the process, capture what they have learned, and get feedback. Areas to improve should be identified and everything discussed and practiced in the review should be documented.

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NEGOTIATION -IN THE ROOM

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Begin the Negotiation

As the negotiation session opens, professionals should ask questions about the substance of the negotiation. Then, they should listen carefully to what their counterparts share. While listening, professionals should avoid reacting to what they hear and should simply absorb the information. In additional to listening, professionals should also set a good example by sharing information. They should share their ideas in consumable chunks and watch out for situations where people could misunderstand one another.

A working relationship should be built early in the negotiation. To keep the relationship separate from the negotiation itself, professionals must do the following:

*Deal with the relationship head-on. If any concerns were raised in preparation, professionals should diagnose them and explore possible solutions.

*Separate relationship issues from the substance of the negotiation. Any relationship issues should be identified and addressed so they do not conflict with the negotiation process itself.

*Work unconditionally to grow the relationship. Regardless of existing issues in the relationship, professionals should work to make the relationship stronger. They should set the stage for a collaborative approach from the beginning by being respectful, well prepared, and ready to listen.

Create and Refine the Options

The relationship building that begins during the negotiation helps negotiators create and refine their options. Professionals must confirm their counterparts’ interests and must also carefully share their own interests. Not all interests should be put on the table, but enough information should be shared to make a counterpart feel comfortable following suit.

Once ideas have been generated, professionals should evaluate them. Standards should be used to narrow options and support good solutions. When one party advocates an option that the other party does not believe is fair, standards should be used to support the argument against it. If counterparts bring conflicting standards, they should discuss which data is appropriate for the situation. By applying standards and iterating and refining the options, professionals will arrive at a few workable solutions.

Select the Right Outcome

When a few solutions are left on the table, professionals must move toward a final agreement. They should evaluate the remaining solutions against the best alternative identified in the preparation.

Professionals should assess their strong options against the following three criteria to narrow them down further:

1. It is operational and sufficient. Professionals should make sure that the timeline, terms, and conditions in the given option are realistic and detailed enough to be implemented.

2. There is authority to commit to it. Professionals should not make agreements they are not allowed to make.

3. It can be sold internally to key stakeholders. Professionals should test the solution with the right people before they make any commitments, keeping in mind that those people may have concerns or ideas that have not been considered.

With the solutions evaluated, many professionals may feel confident that they are getting close to finalizing the negotiation, but some negotiators will find things taking a turn for the worse. In those situations, they must adapt their approach.

Adapt the Approach

Many negotiators are frustrated by the fact that they cannot control what the other party does. In these cases, it is important for professionals to be flexible. The following are ways to stay flexible:

*Role play. When professionals find themselves in the middle of a negotiation and they are not sure which direction to go, they can practice with someone else before going back into the negotiation room.

*Become a fly on the wall. Throughout the negotiation, a professional can step out of the action to look at what is happening. Stepping out is helpful because it allows a professional to avoid getting stuck in a narrow view of the situation.

*Take an occasional break. If negotiators are not sure what to do next, are frustrated and need to calm down, or need to consult with colleagues, they should ask for a break.

*Conduct frequent reviews and make midcourse corrections. A smart negotiator can take a more complete step back at certain points to review what is happening in the negotiation. At each step back, negotiators should ask themselves what is working and what could be done differently.

Negotiation – Before getting to room

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Use the Seven Elements Tool

How professionals define their measures of success will influence how they prepare and negotiate. The following seven elements can help negotiators define success:

1. Interests. Interests are the underlying needs, aims, fears, and concerns that shape what somebody wants. In a negotiation, professionals should search for an outcome that satisfies the full range of interests for all parties involved.

2. Options. Options are the solutions generated that could meet the interests of all parties. The final agreement that professionals draft should be the best of the many options.

3. Standards. Standards are external, objective measures that can be applied to an agreement to assess its fairness. Professionals should aim for an agreement that will be considered fair by everyone involved.

4. Alternatives. Alternatives are the options that negotiators have if they cannot reach an agreement with their counterparts. Once alternatives are identified, professionals must consider which is best.

5. Commitments. Each party makes commitments to do or not do certain things. These promises must be operational, detailed, and realistic and should be made by somebody with the correct authority to carry them out.

6. Communications. An agreement should be the result of effective communication. Effective communication makes the negotiation more efficient, yields clearer agreements, and builds better relationships.

7. Relationships. Professionals must build strong working relationships built on mutual respect, well-established trust, and side-by-side problem solving.

As professionals define their measures of success, they should aim to satisfy the requirements of all seven elements. Once they use the seven elements to establish their definitions, negotiators can move onto questioning their assumptions.

GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

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Crossing items off a to-do list gives the brain a dopamine bump, and that pleasant feeling encourages people to repeat behaviors. Achieving goals page20prismstarts by first setting them. Achieving small goals can be just as pleasurable for the brain as achieving large goals. However, some people struggle with gaining the momentum to achieve big goals. To break long-term goals into short-term accomplishments, individuals can follow the guidelines of the STTARR model:

* See the goal–visualize it and write it down.

* Touch on something to do with the goal every day.

* Think about how the last step taken toward the goal went.

* Adjust the plan, if necessary.

* Reward oneself in small ways to maintain motivation.

* Repeat until the goal has been achieved.

Another trick for achieving goals is to use the “5D” system. Under this system, each item on a to-do list is placed into one of five categories:

  1. Do: Stuff that can be checked off the list today.
  2. Delegate: Stuff that needs to be done today or soon and can be passed along to a subordinate.
  3. Delay: Items that can be pushed off for now (items should not stay here for more than four days).
  4. Discard: Items that can be removed from the list.
  5. Dream: This is a big goal to achieve in one’s lifetime. This item should go on the bottom of every new to-do list going forward.

POWER THROUGH COOPERATION

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A leader cannot do it all, and the good ones know this. Instead, they surround themselves with teams of people who are strongest where they are weakest and they ask for advice from others. They identify those who can help them the most, develop relationships with them, and put energy into keeping those relationships. Leaders can also set up a mentor Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 6.32.03 pmrelationship with people they look up to. One of the ways leaders compensate for their weaknesses is through cooperation with others and putting together winning teams. To put together winning teams, leaders should follow seven tips:

  1. Leaders who win surround themselves with people who are stronger and better than they are.
  2. In the beginning of building a team, the entire focus has to be on development and training.
  3. Great leaders always get the facts, never assume, and plan a course of strategy in case things go wrong.
  4. The right assignments are given to the right people.
  5. Those who are unable to make a positive contribution must be let go.
  6. Communication needs to be open so that the team can access it from anywhere.
  7. Everyone on the team needs to commit to excellence.

Leaders need to communicate clearly because 85 percent of their success depends on it. The point of leadership is power and influence which happens through communication. In a truly successful company, all employees understand what they are trying to accomplish and what the plan is for the future. It is important that people like, respect, and value their leaders because they are more apt to listen to leaders they respect and value. Leaders should be able to persuade others to see their point of view and change their minds. Part of communication is listening, and great leaders pay just as much attention to what is not being said as they do to what is said.

COMMIT TO WINNING

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In order for individuals to become leaders, they must have people to lead. To do this, leaders must commit to winning. People want to follow someone who will lead them to victory — and victory is the main task of leadership. Great military leaders are excellent role models because their one goal is victory as well. Military strategy can lead to success in any field and is comprised of seven main principles:fullsizeoutput_36ef

  1. The Principle of the Objective means that the goals of the company must be clear to every employee — there can be no confusion.
  2. The Principle of the Offensive states that leaders never sit back and wait for something to happen, but instead take control.
  3. The Principle of the Mass means that the best people and resources are focused on the area on which the company is most likely to win.
  4. The Principle of Maneuver translates to being flexible and creative.
  5. The Principle of Intelligence states that leaders gather all the facts and information before they make a decision.
  6. The Principle of Concerted Action means that everyone on the team has the same goals and same values.
  7. The Principle of Unity of Command states that there is one leader who is ultimately responsible.

INSPIRE AND MOTIVATE

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Most people work at only 40 to 50 percent of their capacity, and leaders have to be able to push them beyond their usual performance and get the best out of them. To do this, they have to find out what motivates their employees. There are six specific motivational factors that can turn an average employee into an exceptional one:

  1. Employees need to be challenged and find interest in their work. A great leader finds work that keeps their employees engaged.
  2. Employees appreciate open communication and they like to understand how the work they are doing fits the company’s mission. Leaders should explain to employees how their roles affect the company.
  3. Employees are more likely to take an interest in their tasks when yhey are given responsibility and held accountable.
  4. Employees want the opportunity to advance and learn more.
  5. Employees are somewhat motivated by money.
  6. Working conditions are also important.

Screen Shot 2015-05-01 at 7.43.37 pmEmployees also have three emotional needs — dependence,independence, and interdependence. If all of these are met, employees will stay motivated and inspired.

Leaders must also be able to delegate tasks to their employees not only because it gives them a sense of ownership and responsibility, but also because it frees up the leaders to concentrate on high-value tasks. However, it is crucial that the right employees are given the right tasks — their abilities must match the responsibility of the task. If tasks are delegated to the wrong people, it will lead to failure.

Leaders also motivate and inspire by example. Leaders can accept nothing less than the best from themselves and the companies they work for. They must commit 100 percent of themselves to their work. The more excited and enthusiastic leaders are the more excited and enthusiastic their employees will be. Through constant encouragement, leaders empower their employees.

GREAT LEADERS, GREAT STORIES

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Screen Shot 2015-08-26 at 8.43.15 pmHow leaders see the world is based on these factors:

  1. Concepts and categories: They need to keep tabs on the ideas and innovations that are happening around them, and they need to know which ones they should pay attention to as they look for ideas that will work for their companies.
  2. Beliefs: How leaders think things work and the assumptions they have about what kinds of actions will lead to certain results play a big part in their decision making.
  3. Values: Great leaders have a handle on good versus bad.
  4. Self-image: Leaders who are self-aware are able to predict how people will react to what they say and do.

Great leaders are able to put a story together that will bring a company where it needs to go. This story is bolstered by the leaders’ years of experience, world view, and personal story. It is built upon multiple frames and it may evolve with tweaks along the way, based on where the company is at the time and what will work best for it.

THE LEADER AS MAGICIAN

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Behind all the structures and policies are the symbols that are placed on organizations. Symbols come together to form the corporate culture, that “way of doing things” that drives a team. They may be the values that employees hold dear or the meaning that keeps them going back to work every day.47069_10151428646131848_2072240110_n

Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz brought a cultural revival to the company after visiting many of the stores around 2007. The Starbucks culture and experience had changed after the company began using new espresso machines that blocked the customers’ view of the baristas. This and other changes commoditized the Starbucks experience and made the company feel less like a local coffee shop. In a memo Schultz wrote, “We desperately need to get back to the core and make the changes necessary to evoke the heritage, the tradition, and the passion that we all have for the true Starbucks Experience.”

Such a rallying cry was symbolic but had a practical effect as the company adopted a new strategy and had a reenergized workforce. The company had been in a two-year decline, but began to earn record revenues and profits after this new vision was implemented. Employees want a bit of magic in their leaders, who can bring forth the company’s sprit and values as Schultz was able to do.

SEEING OURSELVES AS OTHERS SEE US

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Many people work for managers who do not seem to see them or understand them. These managers do not seem to realize how they come across, and they often get tangled in hypocritical statements. They are the leaders who get ignored and see their projects stall.

These leaders suffer from personal blindness. How leaders view themselves matters much less than how others view them. They need to understand others’ perceptions of them if they want to move everyone forward. They can be more self-aware by taking the following actions:Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 5.34.11 pm*Ask and receive: People will open up if they are asked, but the questions should be specific to get the desired information. “What was the best part of my speech?” and “What could I have done better?” will result in more fruitful answers than “What did you think of my presentation?”

*Give gratitude: By thanking people who provide feedback, leaders will be more likely to get information the next time they ask.

*Ask before giving: Some people will be suspicious of someone who is asking for feedback, so managers may need to ease into the topic and feel out potential reviewers.