Monthly Archives: March 2019

NEGOTIATION -IN THE ROOM

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Begin the Negotiation

As the negotiation session opens, professionals should ask questions about the substance of the negotiation. Then, they should listen carefully to what their counterparts share. While listening, professionals should avoid reacting to what they hear and should simply absorb the information. In additional to listening, professionals should also set a good example by sharing information. They should share their ideas in consumable chunks and watch out for situations where people could misunderstand one another.

A working relationship should be built early in the negotiation. To keep the relationship separate from the negotiation itself, professionals must do the following:

*Deal with the relationship head-on. If any concerns were raised in preparation, professionals should diagnose them and explore possible solutions.

*Separate relationship issues from the substance of the negotiation. Any relationship issues should be identified and addressed so they do not conflict with the negotiation process itself.

*Work unconditionally to grow the relationship. Regardless of existing issues in the relationship, professionals should work to make the relationship stronger. They should set the stage for a collaborative approach from the beginning by being respectful, well prepared, and ready to listen.

Create and Refine the Options

The relationship building that begins during the negotiation helps negotiators create and refine their options. Professionals must confirm their counterparts’ interests and must also carefully share their own interests. Not all interests should be put on the table, but enough information should be shared to make a counterpart feel comfortable following suit.

Once ideas have been generated, professionals should evaluate them. Standards should be used to narrow options and support good solutions. When one party advocates an option that the other party does not believe is fair, standards should be used to support the argument against it. If counterparts bring conflicting standards, they should discuss which data is appropriate for the situation. By applying standards and iterating and refining the options, professionals will arrive at a few workable solutions.

Select the Right Outcome

When a few solutions are left on the table, professionals must move toward a final agreement. They should evaluate the remaining solutions against the best alternative identified in the preparation.

Professionals should assess their strong options against the following three criteria to narrow them down further:

1. It is operational and sufficient. Professionals should make sure that the timeline, terms, and conditions in the given option are realistic and detailed enough to be implemented.

2. There is authority to commit to it. Professionals should not make agreements they are not allowed to make.

3. It can be sold internally to key stakeholders. Professionals should test the solution with the right people before they make any commitments, keeping in mind that those people may have concerns or ideas that have not been considered.

With the solutions evaluated, many professionals may feel confident that they are getting close to finalizing the negotiation, but some negotiators will find things taking a turn for the worse. In those situations, they must adapt their approach.

Adapt the Approach

Many negotiators are frustrated by the fact that they cannot control what the other party does. In these cases, it is important for professionals to be flexible. The following are ways to stay flexible:

*Role play. When professionals find themselves in the middle of a negotiation and they are not sure which direction to go, they can practice with someone else before going back into the negotiation room.

*Become a fly on the wall. Throughout the negotiation, a professional can step out of the action to look at what is happening. Stepping out is helpful because it allows a professional to avoid getting stuck in a narrow view of the situation.

*Take an occasional break. If negotiators are not sure what to do next, are frustrated and need to calm down, or need to consult with colleagues, they should ask for a break.

*Conduct frequent reviews and make midcourse corrections. A smart negotiator can take a more complete step back at certain points to review what is happening in the negotiation. At each step back, negotiators should ask themselves what is working and what could be done differently.

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Negotiation – Before getting to room

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Use the Seven Elements Tool

How professionals define their measures of success will influence how they prepare and negotiate. The following seven elements can help negotiators define success:

1. Interests. Interests are the underlying needs, aims, fears, and concerns that shape what somebody wants. In a negotiation, professionals should search for an outcome that satisfies the full range of interests for all parties involved.

2. Options. Options are the solutions generated that could meet the interests of all parties. The final agreement that professionals draft should be the best of the many options.

3. Standards. Standards are external, objective measures that can be applied to an agreement to assess its fairness. Professionals should aim for an agreement that will be considered fair by everyone involved.

4. Alternatives. Alternatives are the options that negotiators have if they cannot reach an agreement with their counterparts. Once alternatives are identified, professionals must consider which is best.

5. Commitments. Each party makes commitments to do or not do certain things. These promises must be operational, detailed, and realistic and should be made by somebody with the correct authority to carry them out.

6. Communications. An agreement should be the result of effective communication. Effective communication makes the negotiation more efficient, yields clearer agreements, and builds better relationships.

7. Relationships. Professionals must build strong working relationships built on mutual respect, well-established trust, and side-by-side problem solving.

As professionals define their measures of success, they should aim to satisfy the requirements of all seven elements. Once they use the seven elements to establish their definitions, negotiators can move onto questioning their assumptions.

LEAN Journey

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In The Lean Turnaround, Art Byrne provides businesses with the essentials necessary to make a Lean transformation. The business model is based on the successful Toyota paradigm for cutting waste and optimizing production. It builds a company culture of continuous improvement and allows customers to realize extra value through responsive service, fast delivery, and improved quality. Led by the CEO and company leadership team, Lean transition can provide significant benefits for all types of organizations.

THE LEAN JOURNEY

Simple changes in the value-adding process produce multiple ways to improve financial results. Taiichi Ohno pioneered this principle at Toyota with the concept of continuous improvement, or kaizen. Kaizen requires managers to be hands-on, working among their employees to lead the way. A single kaizen can be a weeklong project or a continuous process. Rather than working with numbers in their offices, managers are most effective when coaching people from the production floor, or gemba.

The three fundamental principles of Lean are:

  1. Productivity equals wealth.
  2. Focus on process, not results.
  3. Teamwork is essential company wide.

Reorganizing a factory for Lean production is a tremendous undertaking. It involves redesigning all processes, moving equipment, and refitting equipment for faster changeovers. Streamlining setup time for various operations pares labor expense and production down time.

In a production setting, kaizen minimizes excess inventory that otherwise sits around as a stagnant asset. Service levels and employee performance improve. Gross profit rises. Expenditures fall, and the value of the enterprise increases. The focus remains on future improvements rather than past sales figures.

DON’T JUST DO LEAN; BE LEAN

Using Lean principles to turn a company around improves all processes to maximize the way in which the company gains value. For the process to be successful, Lean must be the single force that drives change. Managers who want to turn their firms around need to understand and commit to three management principles:

  1. Lean is the strategy.
  2. Lead from the top.
  3. Transform the people.

Rather than throwing out tried and true strategies, a company will continue to develop new products and new markets. Switching to Lean means that these processes proceed more quickly and more effectively, giving the business a strategic advantage over the competition.

Improving value-adding processes automatically reduces the time it takes to do everything. In a marketplace where agility is key, those firms that do everything faster have a significant advantage.

A Lean transformation reverses a company’s traditional tendency to underutilize its people. In a Lean organization, each employee has a voice and is given many opportunities to solve problems. More individual responsibility leads to more efficient teamwork, encourages increased productivity, and results in more responsive customer service. Clear communication and cooperation between managers and workers elicits a cooperative atmosphere in which everyone accomplishes more.

While Lean does not have to mean reducing the workforce, it does require a reduction in the number of job descriptions. The workforce needs to become more flexible, with each person learning to do several jobs.

LEAN PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE TRANSFORMATION

To lead a Lean transformation, the manager must learn and implement four fundamental principles:

  1. Work to takt time, which is the rate of customer demand and the resulting rate of production. This keeps people’s attention focused on the customer, who determines how fast the company produces. The takt equation is time available/daily customer demand = takt time. Even though customer demand may vary by season, the workforce should be able to adapt the production rate as takt time varies, eliminating overstaffing and waste.
  2. Create one-piece flow, where each operation should be positioned in sequence, directly between the previous and subsequent steps. This promotes gains in quality and productivity because the manager can observe the entire production process as a whole, identifying bottlenecks or differences in work rates. One-piece flow typically results in at least a 10-times improvement in efficiency at no expense.
  3. Establish standard work, where everyone doing a particular task does it in exactly the same way. Because it is defined, a standard work process is easier to improve upon.
  4. Connect the customer to the shop floor. A pull system reacts to customer demand rather than trying to predict it. When a product sells, the firm produces it. The pull system also applies to suppliers: Vendors should make daily deliveries according to demand.

WHERE IS LEAN TAKING YOU?

Before beginning kaizen, the Lean manager must:

*Articulate a clear strategy that describes the defining parameters of Lean operation. The strategy should define the firm’s Lean vision as well as the operational improvements that will bring about the transformation.

*Set stretch goals that exceed the best-known results industry-wide.

*Identify core values and distribute copies of these values to all employees so they understand how to affirm them through concrete actions.

*Obtain and train kaizen staff. Managers can gain the necessary knowledge by observing Lean in action at other companies and seeking expert advice. They should stay with the company for several years to ensure the transformation is a success.

*Add Lean knowledge to the board of directors, which sets the tone for the entire organization.

REORGANIZE PEOPLE AROUND VALUE STREAMS

Lean requires a fundamental change from traditional batch organization to a value-stream structure. Production must be a one-piece flow because it delivers the lowest cost, highest quality, and fastest customer response.

In the Lean company structure, value stream managers report directly to the executive team. Each value stream unit has everything it needs to complete production. Equipment, personnel, and supplies are already available; they just need to be redistributed according to Lean production practices. The people in each team respond directly to the customer.

Team leaders should be self-motivated problem solvers who are capable of running a small business. They not only oversee production but provide key measurements for quality control, customer service, and productivity.

The kaizen promotion office (KPO) provides essential support to a value-stream organization. It is composed of Lean experts and those who want to become experts.

Because most organizations are overstaffed, managers should consider reducing the workforce before kaizen begins. Once it starts, a “no-layoff” guarantee keeps employees on board with the transformation.

GO TO THE GEMBA TO RUN THE KAIZEN

The first kaizen projects should pinpoint those areas that have the largest financial impact. They should redesign and improve the biggest product family first. The CEO should select kaizen projects and set each team’s stretch goals.

During a kaizen, the entire team must put its collective focus on a singular objective. Firms should average two kaizen sessions per week per facility during the Lean transformation. Sometimes, teams have to return to the same areas several times to get them flowing smoothly.

Items critical for creating flow during kaizen include:

*Prioritizing safety.

*Reducing all setup times to under 10 minutes.

*Reducing work-in-process inventory to a minimum.

*Moving production equipment into working cells.

*Reducing raw materials.

*Inspecting and repairing all dyes and molds after each use.

*Beginning total productive maintenance (TPM).

*Using 5S procedures.

TPM ensures that each piece of equipment runs when needed. It involves identifying and performing maintenance tasks on a regular basis. 5S procedures should become second nature for everyone in the organization. These are:

1. Seiri — throwing away what is not needed.

2. Seiton — creating and maintaining order.

3. Seiso — cleaning.

4. Seiketsu — developing standard rules.

5. Shitsuke — maintaining discipline.

Once the flow process is well underway, creating pull is the next step. The best tool for a pull system is a simple order card, also known as kanban. The kanban is the link between the flow team and the customer, and it enables the team to follow a “sell one/make one” philosophy.

Kanban is a low-inventory model, with each card representing a single item or a unit of items. The customer submits a kanban card that initiates all of the action. The production cell immediately begins making the product and sends it to the warehouse upon completion. Then, the cell sends the kanban card to its materials and components vendors so they can replenish supplies.

WHAT LEAN LEADERS DO

Lean transformation will fail without strong, committed leadership in the long term. Leaders must be at the forefront of the transformation and have a hands-on leadership style. They must be aware that Lean has no end point and requires ongoing progress.

In any business, the only element capable of true transformation is the workforce. For Lean to work at the strategic level, everyone must think and act in a new way that involves teamwork and striving for the collective good rather than individual benefits.

In general, people dislike change, and middle management and finance are especially resistant. Strong leadership is the only effective way to navigate this resistance. The CEO should identify any resistance on the executive level and eliminate it before it becomes a roadblock to change.

Policy deployment, also called hoshin kanri planning, is an important tool in getting everyone on board. It puts into motion a long-term strategic plan for the organization, defining the breakthrough projects the teams will focus on in the current year and aligning personnel behind these projects. Policy deployment also creates the accountability to make sure these projects have the proper resources and will get done on time.

In the shorter term, a disciplined daily management approach is critical. It includes identifying the metrics that tie into the company’s strategy and financial goals and focuses on process improvement to eliminate waste.

A Lean leader is similar to a player coach who sets strategy while leading by example on the playing field. He or she must focus on the future while challenging the status quo. Lean requires frequent leaps of faith, which are difficult for some leaders. However, leaping into the unknown offers the chance to make significant progress for the Lean CEO. As the one who sets the tone, the Lean leader should never blame others for poor results.

Lean leaders face some of their biggest challenges when things go wrong. Naysayers take a problem as validation that Lean will not work. Problems that slow progress can include the breakdown of badly maintained equipment, employees who will not adhere to standard work, union regulations that do not mesh with Lean production, or glitches with kanban, such as lost cards. The Lean CEO must remind naysayers that any glitch is simply a problem to be worked through, and allow no backsliding or excuses.

Leaders must also adhere to their own standard work during a successful Lean transition. This includes setting the direction for progress, building organizational capability, supporting important progress through walkthroughs, conducting frequent reviews, and showing respect and support for associates. Leaders should also establish a simple higher-level data-tracking system with periodic reporting, allowing for quick assessments that identify areas for improvement.

HOW LEAN CHANGES EVERYTHING

Standard-cost accounting is the most intractable piece of excess baggage in a traditional organization and should be eliminated as quickly as possible. Some Lean leaders make the mistake of trying to maintain existing systems and measurements and simply layering Lean on top of them.

A Lean accounting system is simple, clear, and reality based. It facilitates informed management decisions and requires less financial staff, so it is less costly than standard-cost accounting.

Many traditional measurement methods do not work with Lean. For example, month-end reviews are time consuming and backward looking, while Lean reviews look to the future and improving key process drivers like productivity and inventory turns.

LEVERAGING LEAN IN THE MARKETPLACE

The clear objective of the Lean journey is to deliver value across the board, from customers to suppliers, at a level competitors cannot match. However, the best value is not always the lowest cost. Lean organizations often charge a premium for accuracy, speed, and direct customer service.

One way to deliver better value is to provide faster, more customer-centric new product development. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) takes customer desires into account in designing new products and drastically reduces time to market. With prior customer input, Lean product development can proceed with confidence, and the company can price the products according to the value they provide.

A firm can offer customers better and faster service that lowers their cost of doing business by improving direct interfaces, providing quotes within one day, answering phones promptly and consistently, and eliminating order-processing errors.

At the same time, a company has to protect its own Lean order fulfillment protocol. Two ways to do this are to (1) never tell the customer how many items are currently in stock, and (2) never sell more than 80 percent of stock on hand to a single customer.

Additionally, a company should practice policies that level out customer demand to make production go more smoothly, such as timing promotional programs to assist order leveling and eliminating volume discounts and big batch orders.

Companies that sell directly to end users can leverage Lean by cutting down time frames for everything from quotes to delivery. In addition, a Lean company that shows its vendors how to reduce their setup and processing times will benefit from reduced vendor pricing and more efficient delivery.

CAPITALIZING ON GAINS

Firms that allow associates to share in Lean gains improve faster and establish Lean cultures more quickly. A profit-sharing program is an effective way to share the wealth equally. When employees see that an increase in profits benefits them personally, they work harder for the company. Another type of reward program is a management incentive system.

A Lean company also must actualize improvements. For example, if a flow team no longer needs so many members to deliver on orders, the extra people should be transferred to where they can best benefit the firm in measurable terms.

The CEO can invest Lean capital into new acquisitions. These could be companies that produce parts or materials the Lean firm needs, further reducing the cost of production, or firms that manufacture new products the Lean firm wishes to add to its existing line.

LEAN EVERYWHERE

Lean works well in companies of all types regardless of what they manufacture or the services they provide, as they are all composed of multiple processes. For example, the hospital industry is embracing Lean in growing numbers. Transitioning from a batch-style approach to a value stream system cuts out waste, makes the patient experience more efficient, and makes it possible for the facility to serve greater numbers in less time, increasing profits.

SUMMARY

Given the considerable benefits of a Lean operation, it seems as if every company should be making a Lean transition. However, two barriers stand in the way:

  1. A lack of understanding of Lean and Lean strategy.
  2. A lack of leadership.

By working to overcome these obstacles, any company can empower employees, grow market share, and create wealth for its stakeholders.

EGO vs EQ

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Ego vs. EQ, Jen Shirkani demonstrates that leaders with high emotional intelligence (EQ) display situational Screen Shot 2015-12-22 at 7.10.56 pmawareness and emotional connectedness, which are two vital skills for building employee engagement. Despite the importance of EQ, many executives neglect to develop it. Shirkani explores the various Ego Traps that trip up executives and shows leaders how to recognize and move past them.

The Difference in Ego and EQ

Emotional intelligence (EQ) refers to a person’s self-awareness, empathy, social skills, motivation, and self-regulation. Essentially, people demonstrate their emotional intelligence by showing concern for others as well as an awareness of their own actions. While ego forces individuals to make decisions based on self-interest, EQ allows people to make decisions that are best for everyone. A careful balance of ego and EQ is vital for a leader’s success.

When climbing to the top of the corporate ladder, individuals must rely heavily on self-confidence, assuredness, conviction, and clear decision making-all qualities of the ego. By the time they reach the top, most leaders have forgotten all about the merit of emotional intelligence. To make matters worse, the higher a person’s rank, the less likely he or she is to receive honest feedback. This exposes leaders to one or more of the eight Ego Traps:

  1. Ignoring unfavorable feedback.
  2. Believing technical skills trump leadership skills.
  3. Creating a support system of exact replicas.
  4. Not letting go of control.
  5. Being blind to the downstream impact of decisions.
  6. Underestimating how frequently executive behavior is observed.
  7. Losing touch with frontline experience.
  8. Reverting back to old behaviors.

Ego Trap 1: Ignoring Unfavorable Feedback

Executives often believe they are performing well in their roles. However, when pressed, executives typically do not have any concrete evidence of their supposed high performance. Executives rarely mandate performance evaluations for themselves, even though they are certainly in the habit of grading the performance of those below them. Beyond making it impossible to have a true understanding of their own performance, they also send the message that they are above feedback and reviews. Ego Trap 1 occurs when a leader does not formally invite feedback from the team or ignores feedback when it is provided.

The first situation, where a leader does not ask for feedback, could stem from an assumption that the team is close enough that if an individual wanted to approach the leader with feedback he or she could. While this assumption is innocent enough, it is not always true. Shirkani advises leaders to take a look at the kind of feedback they are receiving from their teams. The ideal type of feedback relates to leaders’ effectiveness at motivating and engaging employees. If the team only talks about satisfaction with the direction of the company, they are probably not comfortable providing honest feedback to the executive. Alternatively, the problem of a “halo effect” can occur in which the team trusts everything the executive does and therefore will not disagree with any decision. Lack of honest feedback will not help leaders grow.

The second scenario occurs when executives refuse to ask for feedback. Of the two, this scenario can be the most detrimental to a leader’s career. Feedback provides the key indicators that will sharpen business results. Without it, leaders will fail to motivate and support their teams properly, which can ruin a business.

Three steps can help leaders escape Ego Trap 1:

  1. Leaders should implement a way for their teams to provide honest feedback in a formal way. Leaders must learn to recognize the way their followers perceive their actions and adjust accordingly.
  2. Leaders should recognize the informal feed back they receive on a daily basis (employee conversations, body language, etc.). This informal feedback will provide clues as to how they are performing on a daily basis.
  3. Leaders should respond to these perceptions in an emotionally intelligent way that is not driven by ego.

Ego Trap 2: Believing Technical Skills Trump Leadership Skills

The second Ego Trap is triggered when any leader overvalues his or her technical skills, industry knowledge, or field of expertise at the expense of other leadership attributes, such as flexibility, social awareness, or empathy. Most leaders come to this Ego Trap innocently. Their technical skills earned them promotions and professional accolades throughout their careers, but when a person is promoted into an executive position, his or her new role comes with the responsibility of leading a team. A deep understanding of leadership skills is not traditionally taught in business school, and many new executives drown in their ignorance.

If leaders feel they are stuck in this trap, Shirkani advises them to move away from the ego, which says the leader knows best, and toward an EQ point of view that takes into account ideas offered by employees. By making this switch, leaders show their teams that they are valued.

The best way to move from ego to EQ is for an executive to first recognize he or she is feeling an impulse to react as a technical expert instead of a team leader. Understanding when these feelings arise will better prepare leaders to take a step back and act with concern for their teams’ growth. Leaders must also possess empathy. They should read the cues from their employees to understand what they may need in any given situation. Leaders must determine what their teams can accomplish without supervision and what value the leaders can add to their teams. Finally, leaders must respond appropriately. The goal is to take internal and external information and use it to give an emotionally intelligent response.

Ego Trap 3: Creating a Support System of Exact Replicas

Ego Trap 3 is perhaps the trap that goes most unnoticed. It happens at all levels, but it is the most dangerous at the executive level. Ego Trap 3 occurs when any leader surrounds himself or herself with people they “click with” rather than with individuals best able to do the job. While on the outside this does not seem like a problem (it is important to get along with colleagues), a closer look reveals that these “yes men” are the exact people who are least likely to challenge the decisions of the leader or recognize the blind spots he or she may have. Symptoms such as stagnation, disengagement, monotony, and rigidity will appear within the team and affect the company’s growth.

Sometimes lack of diversity comes from a legitimate shortage of talent, but most often it comes from confirmation bias. People who share character qualities are more likely to get along with one another and view one another favorably regardless of qualifications. Despite it being human nature, it is still detrimental to hire or promote simply due to this kind of bias. Some signs that a leader is falling into Ego Trap 3 include:

* Everyone in the leader’s inner circle shares the same work and communication styles.

* Decisions among the executive team are made quickly and easily with minimal challenges.

* The executive team lacks any diversity.

* Challengers in the company are often ostracized and labeled as naysayers.

* The company lacks a formal, structured interviewing and selection process. Managers can hire on “gut feelings” with little or no evidence of competency on the part of the applicant.

The best way to climb out of Ego Trap 3 is to first recognize the biases present during the hiring and promotion processes. Next, leaders must work to view differing opinions as important instead of combative. When leaders teach themselves how to value those employees who think differently than they do, their teams will be much more engaged and successful.