Monthly Archives: March 2016

Story Telling

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Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 8.26.57 pm* Tell stories. Stories are highly effective conduits for learning. This is because listeners relate the stories to their own past experiences and actually form new experiences which incorporate the emotions and ideas in the stories.

*Relive instead of retelling a story. Effective storytellers bring their characters to life through voice and physical presence, appearing to relive a story as they tell it. They use real dialogue to convey emotion, either moving the story forward or revealing a character’s strengths and flaws.

* Create a protagonist with strengths, weaknesses, and goals. Using archetype roles for a story’s characters boost emotional impact and save time. Listeners naturally want heroes to succeed and villains to try to obstruct them.

* Challenge the protagonist with a worthy opponent. The best, most believable stories have opponents well-matched with the protagonist. When villains are intangible evils, they can serve as effective foils to the core message. For example, complacency would be an appropriate villain in a speech inspiring people to take action.

* Introduce a mentor to humanize and arm the protagonist. Most mentors are family and friends. But they can also be inanimate objects like a computer, or even intangible entities like music.

* Craft a high-stakes climax. The more intense a story’s climax, the more it will engage the audience.

* Tell the audience the moral of the story. Most speakers overtly deliver the moral of their story.

* Tell stories using a three-act hero’s journey structure. In Act 1, the protagonist is introduced and experiencing an incident that casts him on a journey. In Act 2, the protagonist is subjected to escalating conflicts and accumulates valuable tools and knowledge in the course of each trial. In Act 3, the protagonist has been transformed physically, morally, or emotionally.

* Bring listeners into the story’s setting. Effective settings are specific in time, location, and atmosphere. For example, the speaker describes the season, weather, lighting, and even physical objects to convey a mood.

* Build a logical narrative structure by choosing the variety and progression of stories. While stories can be varied in many creative ways, it is important to keep a consistent theme and to reinforce the core message in the speech’s title.

Stories can progress in four ways:

  1. Linear–standard chronological order.
  2. Independent–multiple stories share a core message but have different characters, settings, and chronologies.
  3. Flashback–the speaker turns back the clock and then returns to a chronological order of events.
  4. Nonlinear–artful approaches like reverse or complex blends of chronology.

* Adjust technical depth to the message and the audience. Even when addressing a professional audience, speakers must be careful to avoid overly challenging content. Listeners should not be made to feel like they are being lectured.

* Eliminate jargon. Jargon, especially acronyms and industry slang, can lose an audience and make the speaker sound less professional. Its use should be restricted to audiences who are clearly familiar with it.

* Choose messages with universal appeal. Speakers should choose stories that appeal to both men and women. For example, metaphors should not relate solely to male-oriented sports.

USING HUMOR

* Get the first laugh fast to release tension, build rapport, and create likeability. Audiences want and need the speaker to release the tension that builds up before a speech begins. Making listeners laugh helps build a connection with them.

*Use humor in every speech. Humor serves to both inspire and entertain. It can even be appropriate during periods of mourning or tragedy, because laughter helps people heal.

* A speaker can get more laughs per minute with a sense of superiority, surprise, or release. Superiority-based humor often targets eccentrics or people who make bad decisions, and can range from gentle parody to scathing insults. Surprise-based humor may include such approaches as sheer absurdity or screwball comedy. Humor can also be used to release strong emotions. For example, sexual humor releases embarrassment.

* Remember to riff. Riffing is the use of clusters of jokes. The goal is to get a laugh, pause, then elaborate on the original humorous comment.

* Amplify humor with vocal, physical, and facial expressiveness. While silence is important in capturing laughter, exaggerated vocal variety, mannerisms, and other types of physicality can accelerate it.

* All humor should further the message. Speakers should avoid recycling jokes told by comedians, which rarely further the message of their speech.

* Pause and stay in character while the audience is laughing. While great comedians wait for laughter to subside, they remain in character without moving unless movement is part of the joke.

MANAGING FEAR AND ANXIETY During Session

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Motivation Session with Multinational Service Sector Accept fear. Anxiety is a natural reaction to stress. It can be helpful to speakers by releasing adrenaline, which improves performance.

Develop confidence through practice. It is critical for to practice, and to obtain as much feedback as possible. Two major feedback sources for speakers are videoing themselves, and soliciting the opinions of others.

Eliminate logistical uncertainty. Four practices can help reduce anxiety caused by uncertainty:

  1. Commuting in advance to the speaking location.
  2. Checking the setup of the room.
  3. Pretesting the technology.
  4. Learning about the audience.

Reduce stress in the hours before the speech. There are many effective stress-relieving approaches, including:

*Getting a good night’s sleep.

*Drinking warm liquids and eating lightly.

*Taking a walk.

*Listening to music.

Speak slowly. People under stress naturally speak faster than usual. To slow down, it helps to fill one’ lungs with air every few sentences; pause at commas and periods; and clearly enunciate.

Tips and Tricks to be used by TRAINERS

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The following tips and tricks can help trainers tackle common workshop issues:

• Audience engagement. Some of the most effective methods for keeping audiences engaged include asking rhetorical questions, being authentic, and storytelling.

• Bloopers. Mistakes are inevitable; allowing a mistake to derail a presentation is not. When something goes wrong, a trainer should lighten the situation with a joke.

• Candy, treats, gifts, and prizes. Candy and treats are not only great energizers, but can be used as prizes and rewards.PhotoGrid_1450273862535

• Crowd control. To control large audiences, trainers must use their microphones and vocal cues to regain attention.

• Appropriate dress. A presenter should ensure his or her hair, makeup, and wardrobe are neat and professional, and not outdated.

• Magic/illusion. Since magic tricks can add levity to social situations, trainers might consider integrating some into their presentations.

• Slideshow presentations. To prevent boring PowerPoint presentations, trainers should focus on no more than three to four points. Slideshows should include images and succinct points, not long sentences. An ideal presentation is 20 minutes long, with 10 slides in 30-point font.

COMPELLING VISUAL AIDS

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Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 7.25.37 pm* Sparingly use relevant only props. Props should generally be avoided, because they draw attention away from the speaker and suspend the audience’s imagination. They should be used only to trigger emotions, or when showing something is more effective than describing it.

* Imbue props with mul*le meanings. Certain props, like chairs, can sometimes be used creatively to convey deeper meanings.

* Use only slides that enhance a presentation. Some argue that the effort spent on designing slides is better directed into enriching ideas. Others see slide development as a way to think through and enhance one’s content. Ultimately, the choice to include or eliminate slides depends on the audience, purpose, and speaker.

* Storyboard the first draft on paper. When using slides, it is helpful to draft them on sticky notes. The notes’ size limits content length, while the adhesive facilitates easy arrangement.

* Practice design simplicity. Every slide headline should be a “so what” instead of a “what.” These headlines should be able to tell the whole story.

* Use bulleted and numbered text sparingly. Three of the best practices to follow when using bulleted text include:

  1. Begin each bullet with an action verb
  2. Avoid sub-bullets.
  3. Use between 3-7 bullets.

* Use column charts for categorical information. The most common charts in business, these are used to display categorical data when each item can be labelled on an axis. Clustered columns are generally preferable to stacked columns.

* Pie charts highlight the importance of a single data point. Pie charts are best when it is important to show the relative importance of different items.

* Scatterplots visualize patterns or trends in large amounts of data. This approach is appropriate if there are too many data points to label individually. A common type is the time series, with time on one axis and a quantity on the other.

* Jazz up slides with images. Vibrant images can enliven a business presentation. Images should be chosen for their relevance to the content of the speech.

Achievement Habit

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People always find excuses to not change their lives, including issues with their families, work lives, and finances; however, Professor Roth believes these reasons are often invalid. PhotoGrid_1457438258489In The Achievement Habit, Roth condenses his lengthy experience teaching a course called “The Designer in Society” and posits that if people truly want to change aspects of their lives, they absolutely can and should–no matter what.

NOTHING IS WHAT YOU THINK IT IS

Roth believes that all meaning in life is entirely subjective. As humans, people assign meaning to experiences, people, and objects based on their emotions and behavior patterns. Roth often conducts an exercise in his classes where he urges students to imagine different aspects of their lives and repeat over and over that these things “have no meaning.” Once finished, they reflect on the experience of taking away all assigned or chosen meaning in their lives. This helps them become empowered participants in their lives rather than victims of circumstance.

Stripping meaning and emotion from experiences, people, and objects allows people to forge new attitudes toward events and relationships. Roth believes that many people have a cognitive bias called functionalfixedness that only allows them to see objects for their normal purpose. Instead, he recommends that people practice the viewpoint that “nothing is what they think it is,” which allows the familiar to become unfamiliar, and possibilities to be endless.

REASONS ARE BULLSHIT

Everyone is given the same amount of time each day, and yet some people seem to be much more productive with their 24 hours than others. The less productive people almost always have reasons for why they could not achieve more; however, Roth believes that reasons are simply “excuses prettied up.” People use these reasons to justify their lack of results and mask their shortcomings.

If something is truly important to someone, there is no reason he or she cannot achieve it. Roth uses an exercise in his classes where whenever a person begins a sentence with, “The reason that I…” he or she is met with the answer, “That’s a goooood reason.” Once met with enough of these responses, people are able to see that their reasons are simply excuses that impede new paths and insights.

There is no scientific way to know exactly where a decision will lead, and agonizing over possible options only hinders people from deciding anything at all. Some find it helpful to write in a journal to take account of how and where they spend their time. Once their time is accounted for, it becomes easier to see where there is room for improvement.

GETTING UNSTUCK

When faced with problems, most people instinctually try to search for solutions; however, reframing problems entirely can be a better first step. Reframing opens new perspectives and offers individuals new opportunities for moving forward. In the design thinking world, reframing changes people’s points of view (POV) and helps them create problem statements that define what they actually need, not just what they think they need.

Roth briefly describes 22 methods that designers can use to reframe their problems and adjust their POVs:

1. Hard work. There is no substitute for attention and intention.

2. Creating a supportive environment. A supportive environment will lead to a clear mind.

3. Relaxing. Sometimes the relaxed subconscious knows the best next step.

4. Brainstorming. All ideas must be welcome, and group brainstorming can be extremely helpful.

5. Lists. Several lists can be made of any and all possibilities.

6. Meta-lists. More specific lists can be made from initial lists (e.g., start with a list of places to go, then make a meta-list of things to do in each place).

7. Morphological analysis. Matching up elements or common traits in different combinations might offer new insights.

8. Idea logs. Keeping an idea log can be a great tool for problem solving.

9. Humor. Joking and laughing can spawn fresh thoughts.

10. Conversation. Opening up to others about problems can lead to new POV statements.

11. Forced transformations. People can force conventional ideas into unconventional scenarios and imagine the outcomes.

12. Synectics. This method uses analogies to devise solutions.

13. Diagramming physical processes. Diagramming a process from beginning to end will show different avenues to success.

14. “What if?” Asking “what if?” questions, even absurd ones, can begin new thought processes.

15. Decision-making matrix. This matrix can help individuals compare different ideas–one row represents ideas and another represents the attributes within the ideas.

16. Working backward. By imagining that a problem has already been solved, a person can work backward and find the best way to start.

17. Storyboards. These are good for telling a story in a linear manner from start to finish.

18. How-why diagrams. These diagrams aim to show cause and effect in detail.

19. Nasal thinking. Roth’s colleague coined this term for being flexible in using different cognitive styles to solve problems.

20. Mind maps. Also called relationship maps, these show the connections between pieces of information in a nonlinear fashion.

21. Meta summary. Also called visual thinking, these summaries are drawn and imagined with several overlapping pieces.

22. Diagraming yourself. This method encourages people to find balance in their minds using both left- and right-brain thinking.

FINDING ASSISTANCE

When attempting to change, Roth encourages people to ask others for assistance. He believes that great things occur when people assist one another to achieve their best selves. Success does not come from speaking or feeling negatively about others, as negativity only breeds negativity. Having positive attitudes toward others can lead to positive changes.

People often look to their mentors when undergoing changes or shifts in their lives. As an alternative to a formal mentorship, Roth recommends seeking out mini-mentorships from people who have accomplished similar goals in life. For example, if a person is hoping to write a book, he or she should seek advice and wisdom from someone who has accomplished this already. This kind of relationship can have a more informal ebb and flow based on mutual interests.

Deliberate networking, on the other hand, is not recommended in Roth’s experience. He believes manipulative networking to be transparent and insincere. Instead, he believes people should focus on forging real, genuine friendships.

DOING IS EVERYTHING

There is a vast difference between trying and doing. Trying to make a change is a passive approach and may work eventually, most likely by luck, whereas actual doing requires intention and attention.

When seeking out a path to doing, affirmations, or formatted statements repeated over and over again, can aid in fostering a positive mental attitude. Affirmations are best when they target something in the present. This kind of repeated mental affirmation can successfully change a person’s self-image, and project the positive change he or she is hoping to achieve.

Roth also believes there is never going to be the “right time” to do something. The right time to do anything is in the present moment.

WATCH YOUR LANGUAGE

Communication affects not only the way people see one another, but how people view themselves. Making specific word choices, such as “yes” versus “no,” “and” versus “but,” “want to” versus “have to,” and “will not” versus “can not,” can really change people’s lives in a positive way, whereas using negative word choices may even result in needless conflict or hurt feelings.

To communicate successfully with others, Roth suggests eight strategies:

1. Speak for yourself. “I” statements, such as “I know,” “I feel,” or “I think,” are well received by others because they place personal responsibility on the speaker, not the listener.

2. Do not be judgmental. Avoid placing judgment on others. If it is necessary to state judgmental opinions, use “I” statements only.

3. Acknowledge other people’s issues. Although people may not be actually seeking advice or solutions, they respond well to being genuinely listened to.

4. Do not ask “why?” questions. Declarative statements are better for open communication. “Why?” questions can seem defensive or aggressive.

5. Really listen. Individuals should not be mentally preparing their responses before hearing the end of others’ thoughts. Instead, they should strive to listen deeply and genuinely.

6. When telling a story, be clear about the point.

7. Make sure communications are heard as intended. Good communicators make sure their messages are heard exactly as they mean them to be.

8. Be sure to understand what is being communicated in return. Ask questions and clarify issues in order to get the most out of a conversation.

GROUP HABITS

Working in groups–whether they are familial, professional, academic, or political–is a requirement for many professionals. Successful teamwork requires people to be as flexible, tolerant, and adaptable as possible. Roth suggests changing one’s physical surroundings to overcome any roadblocks or conflicts that arise during group work. Exercises such as improvisation and relationship-building games can also promote bonding and aid in problem solving.

SELF-IMAGE BY DESIGN

A person’s self-image drastically determines many aspects of his or her life. If a person’s self-image is that of a risk taker, regardless of whether or not it is accurate, eventually his or her actions will align with those of a risk taker. If a person’s self-image is that of a victim, most–if not all–experiences will align with the concept of victimhood. Role models may shape individuals’ initial self-images, but as they mature their self-images will become shaped more frequently by their own social interactions.

THE BIG PICTURE

Life is full of uncertainty and unpredictable events. Success and change often occur when people take a break from the minutiae of their everyday lives and look at the big picture. Setting and striving for goals is a great way to stay focused, but it is also important to be flexible and open to change. Things are not always going to go according to plan, and people often stumble upon the best opportunities when they are open to nonlinear paths.

MAKE ACHIEVEMENT YOUR HABIT

The word “problem” often has negative connotations. Many think of problems as things that need to be “solved” or “fixed.” Instead, people should view problems as opportunities to reframe and redirect their lives. Sometimes thinking of next steps as prototypes–samples or models to test new concepts–can help people reshape their problems. Prototypes also help people avoid over-thinking. Since prototypes invite action, people spend less time thinking about the “what ifs” of their futures. This is the ultimate goal in Roth’s opinion–for people to avoid spending their lives over-thinking, making excuses, and simply waiting for things to change. Instead, he hopes people will use his principles to move forward and live successful, fulfilling lives now–not later.

FEATURES OF THE BOOK

Estimated Reading Time: 5-6 hours, 288 pages

In The Achievement Habit, Bernard Roth uses personal anecdotes, class experiences, and life lessons to explore the ways people can take control and start living more fulfilling lives. The book is best read in chapter order, and it includes notes and a bibliography at the end for reference.

KEY CONCEPTS

*The normal response to a problem is to search for a solution; however, reframing the problem is often actually more productive. Reframing a problem opens new perspectives and creates new opportunities.

*Achievement in life occurs when people stop using reasons as excuses to justify their behaviors and learn the difference between “trying” to do something and “doing” something.

*There is never going to be the “right time” to do something. In reality, the best time to do anything is in the present moment.

*Communication affects not only how people see one another, but how they view themselves. Making specific word choices, such as “yes” versus “no,” “and” versus “but,” “want to” versus “have to,” and “will not” versus “can not,” can change many different aspects of a person’s life.

*Successful teamwork requires people to be flexible, tolerant, and adaptable of opposing points of view.

*Individuals’ self-images determine more than they think. Self-images are not constant–humans change their self-images throughout their lives to adapt to different situations.

*Life is full of uncertainty and unpredictable events. Having goals helps people stay focused; however, they must also be open to change.

*The word “problem” has negative connotations. Many people think of problems as things that must be fixed; instead, they should view problems as opportunities to reframe and redirect their lives.

MANAGING NONVERBAL DELIVERY

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Screen Shot 2015-08-12 at 8.11.34 pm*  Power-pose before speaking. Speakers can improve their confidence and performance simply by changing their posture before speaking.

* Enter the stage with confident energy. While all speakers feel some anxiety, the best ones are able to channel nervous energy into calm confidence. When entering the stage, they project a level of energy that reinforces the purpose of their speech.

* Speakers should settle themselves and connect with the audience before speaking. Speakers commonly fuss with papers or computers before they speak. Listeners will have a better first impression of someone who comes across as composed and relaxed.

* Decide on a base position for hands. When not gesturing, speakers need to place their hands so as to feel and look comfortable. Relaxing hands and arms at one’s sides conveys friendliness, while holding hands together at navel level appears more authoritative.

* Hold eye contact with individuals for 3-5 seconds. To encourage trust, speakers should choose specific listeners and hold eye contact with them for approximately the length of one or two sentences.

* Match movement to message and venue. Some speeches are best without movement. Business presentations and some other types need a small degree of movement. Keynotes require the most movement.

* Start and end at the front and center of the stage. This is a natural focal point for the audience. It also minimizes the distance between speaker and listeners.

* In stories, give each character a personality. To bring characters to life, it is important to give them distinctive physical presences and voices. Additionally, each character may be acted out at a particular stage location.

* Gesture naturally. There is no perfect number or type of gesture. Speakers should use whatever gestures seem natural and appropriate to the message.

* Accept applause gracefully. Standing still when finishing a business presentation signals confidence and invites questions.

* Maintain poise while exiting. Speakers who leave the stage with confidence and poise can keep an emotional bond with the audience as they depart.

* Dress to relate. It is a mistake to over- or under-dress. The speaker’s goal should be to dress in the same style and one step above the audience; for example, wearing a suit for a business presentation where most listeners’ attire is business casual.