CHANGE MANAGEMENT

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Leading people through change is one of the most difficult challenges leaders face. People tend to be resistant to change because of the chaos generated from moving from the current state to the new state. There are two methods for introducing and executing change:

  1. The hammer approach is a top-down management style, with changes dictated to employees from above. It is fast and efficient, and management always stays in control. A downside is that people who are “hammered” can become distrustful and demoralized. Leaders using the hammer approach need to practice constant communication, show empathy, and let people vent.
  2. In the commitment approach, leaders involve employees in all aspects of the change, from planning and implementation to measuring and assessing progress. This is an effective way to build employee buy-in and is especially useful when an aspect of the change is altering employee values, attitudes, and behaviors. On the downside, it requires significant time, effort, and patience.

ImplementManagers and employees alike go through a four-step process in reacting to the chaos that accompanies change. The progression is universal, whether the change is negative or positive:

  1. Denial: At first people are confused, anxious, and in shock about the change.
  2. Emotion: People next develop emotions of anger, fear, frustration, and cynicism.
  3. Transition: In the transition phase, people are skeptical, but their negativity is balanced by curiosity, acceptance, and hope.
  4. Excitement: In the fourth phase, people feel relief, are excited about the change, and have a renewed sense of trust.

There are no shortcuts to leadership development. It takes hard work to develop the important skills needed to influence others. The process is never really complete. Leaders must constantly refine and improve their skills as they seek to “lead on purpose.”

An effective strategy, executed well, can enable you to deliver better results than your competitors because it can help you define a unique position in the marketplace.

We must ask the right questions at the right time to get the information we need in order to truly communicate effectively.

Active listening is vital to establishing healthy relationships. In active listening, you are 100 percent present with the other person, demonstrating your respect for them, for their views, and for their feelings.

Delivered well, redirecting feedback is a positive, empowering experience for both parties. The goal is to restore the individual to effective performance.

It can be hard to separate our thoughts from our feelings about a situation, especially a conflict situation… But never doubt it: a specific, identifiable thought was there before you reacted emotionally.

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The Kinesthetic Presenter

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An effective presenter is not only knowledgeable and prepared, he or she also remains aware of the movements and positions of audience members. Such cues will reveal IMG_6946.JPGimportant information, such as their engagement and energy levels. Here are some questions trainers can ask themselves to gauge whether their audiences are attentive and interested:

*Do they make eye contact?

*Do they ask content-specific questions?

*Do they participate in activities?

According to Kuczala, if the facilitator can effectively read the audience, he or she will be able to respond with the appropriate movement technique before participants grow wary or disengaged. Participants’ body language can convey valuable information to the presenter. Similarly, a presenter’s body language sends equally important messages to the audience. The following eight expressions of positive body language can enhance learners’ perceptions of a presenter:

1. Good posture will make the presenter feel more self-assured.

2. Friendly eye-contact helps the presenter connect with participants, and it keeps his or her head held high, which improves posture.

3. A smile will show that the presenter is enthusiastic about the presentation, which will make participants more open to the content.

4. Energetic movement will enliven the audience.

5. An engaged brain and body. If a presenter is not in a confident frame of mind, it will affect his or her body language.

6. Moving around the learning space can bridge the gap between a presenter and his or her audience. Movement will also keep participants focused.

7. Calm mannerisms will make a better impression on an audience, since anxious movements can distract participants and make them feel uneasy.

8. Walking purposefully through the learning space connects the presenter with participants. Erratic or repetitive movement can annoy or distract individuals.

Further, the presenter should always be conscious of his or her mind-body connection. What the facilitator does or does not do with his or her body can affect training sessions in meaningful ways. The following techniques can engage participants and make positive impressions:

*Move around the learning space to better connect with, and become more familiar with, the audience.

*Use inviting hand gestures to ensure that positive physical and verbal messages are sent to the audience.

*Remain aware of the audience in order to assess whether participants’ learning states have started to decline, and respond with an appropriate kinesthetic activity.

Conversely, these approaches can send negative messages to learners:

*Hands that are crossed in front of the body are a sign of discomfort and/or disinterest.

*Hands that are hidden in pockets signify a lack of interest and impede the presenter’s ability to gesture. Skillful hand gestures can help a presenter connect more closely with an audience.

*Hands that are hidden behind the back imply untrustworthiness and/or insecurity.

*Hands on the hips signal a power position, which may make audience members feel intimidated and cause them to withdraw.

*Arms in a crossed position reveal that a presenter is disinterested and/or uncomfortable in his or her environment.

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

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0-11Conflict always has an emotional component, although both sides do not have to be angry. Conflict can be healthy if it propels an organization to greater levels of achievement, but it is unhealthy if it involves strong emotions and is disruptive to workplace productivity and morale.

The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument categorizes five ways in which people handle conflict:

  1. They compete, looking for and using the power available to them.
  2. They are accommodative, giving ground on what they need and want.
  3. They avoid the conflict, simply refusing to address it.
  4. They compromise, exchanging concessions with the other party.
  5. They collaborate, working to find a mutually beneficial solution that meets both parties’ needs.

The VOMP model, developed by Crosby Kerr Minno Consulting, can be useful in resolving conflict situations. VOMP stands for:

  1. Ventilation: Each side airs its position on the conflict.
  2. Ownership: Each side takes ownership of what they actually said or did.
  3. Moccasins: Each side walks in the others’ shoes, expressing an understanding of, and empathy for, their point of view.
  4. Plan:The two sides strive to find a solution.

What you like **

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Please share in a comment what is POSITIVE In this pictureIMG_3840

What you Don’t like

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Please share in a comment what is NEGATIVE / BAD in this pictureIMG_3839

COMMUNICATE WITH RESPECT

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The most important skill for any leader to have is the ability to communicate effectively. image1-4.jpegThis means clearly articulating a vision, connecting with people in a way that promotes understanding and listening to really hear what people have to say. Six obstacles limit effective communication:Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 5.35.33 pm

  1. Moving too fast, which can happen due to overreliance on email and texting.
  2. Listening too little.
  3. Failing to show respect for others.
  4. Making assumptions about what others know or understand.
  5. Ignoring the importance of nonverbal communication.
  6. Not checking for understanding.

A key aspect of effective communications is asking the right questions at the right time. There are two kinds of questions:

  1. Closed questions: Questions that can be answered with a simple “yes” or “no.”These questions convey minimal information.
  2. Open questions: Questions that begin with journalists’ words: who, what, when, where, and why. Open questions produce more information and can be followed by phrases such as “tell me more,” to solicit more information.

The Johari Window, a communications model developed by Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham, stresses the two-way nature of communication. Exposure, on the vertical axis of the window, is the measure of how well communicators let others know what is going on in their minds. Feedback, on the horizontal axis, measures how well communicators are receiving and understanding what is going on in the other party’s head.

There are 10 approaches that can help leaders increase the amount and effectiveness of their exposure. Leaders must:

  1. Be sure their specific concerns are clear by describing specific situations and how they reacted.
  2. Never assume they know what others are thinking or feeling.
  3. Be careful not to convey a judgment — positive or negative — of other people’s characters.
  4. Give concrete examples of what they mean.
  5. Give information rather than advice.
  6. Tailor their conversations to the receivers’ needs.
  7. Check for understanding.
  8. Avoid overloading receivers with information beyond what they can handle and use.
  9. Be level with receivers without “leveling” them.
  10. Maintain their sense of humor and be willing to laugh at themselves.

Listening is a very important part of effective communication. People engage in four types of listening:

  1. Physical listening: The listener is bodily present, but not really paying much attention to what is going on.
  2. Tape listening: The listener is not really interested in what the other person is saying, but is just attentive enough to be able to repeat back word for word what has been said if asked.
  3. Judgmental listening: The listener is developing a rebuttal rather than seeking to understand what the other person is saying.
  4. Active listening: The listener is 100 percent present, with a goal of understanding and not necessarily agreeing.

Active listening is the preferred listening style. One tool to help achieve this is paraphrasing, or repeating what the other party has said in an accurate and neutral summary. The second is reflection, or acknowledging the feelings or emotions the other party has conveyed. In both paraphrasing and reflection, it is important for people not to sound condescending or to give the impression that a technique is being employed.

TRUSTWORTHINESS

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Of all the attributes leaders need, trustworthiness may be the most important. Followers will not commit to leaders they cannot trust. In a work situation, if there is no trust, the boss is just a boss, not a leader. When people do not trust their bosses they often find other jobs, and those who stay often do so grudgingly.

Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 5.34.53 pmLeaders demonstrate their trustworthiness through five kinds of behaviors:

  1. They tell the truth as they understand it–they do not simply agree with two people with conflicting opinions just to keep the peace. Most lies eventually come to the surface, so trustworthy leaders stick to the truth and do not shade the facts to make themselves look better or to avoid difficult situations.
  2. They do what they promise. If a situation arises where leaders cannot follow through with their promises, they need to explain to their team members what has happened and what they plan to do about it. They must think carefully about how failing to keep a promise will affect certain people.
  3. They keep confidences to themselves. Trustworthy leaders know sharing confidential information is hurtful and unprofessional.
  4. They speak and act for the greater good. Sometimes this requires leaders to be tough to bring about changes they believe will benefit their organizations in the long run. In such cases, trustworthy leaders explain what they are doing and why.
  5. They are capable and get results. While the other four behaviors reflect aspects of leaders’ characters, the fifth reflects their competence to do their jobs. Leaders who are lacking in the skills and capabilities required for their jobs should put effort into building their capabilities through training or coaching. When it comes to results, leaders should be careful never to promise more than they are certain they can deliver.

DIRECTIONAL LEADERSHIP

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Leaders should not think they are the only ones worthy of creating and knowing corporate visions. All employees need to know their companies’ visions and how their work contributes to them. When visions are established, leaders need to build consensus. The aim must be for employees to come to work to pursue visions, not just to perform the functions of their jobs. The four challenges applying to Directional Leadership and action items related to the four challenges include:

Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 5.28.41 pmChallenge One: Recruit support from the top 29 percent.

*Identify the top 29 percent.

*Bring the top 29 percent together as a group.

*Solicit input from the top 29 percent into the vision.

*Ask the top 29 percent to recruit the other 54 percent.

Challenge Two: Prepare the organization for change.

*Agree on unity within the leadership team. For success, all members of the team must be on the same page.

*Give the reason for the change.

*Tell employees how the change will affect them.

*Use data to tell the story — numbers and facts can be very powerful.

*Introduce the change as an improvement.

*Celebrate the past and the future.

Challenge Three: Let them know how they contribute.

*Assess how well expectations have been communicated.

*Let employees create the expectations through goal setting.

*Assess how well consequences have been communicated.

*Determine positive consequences that would drive behavior.

*Ensure the consequences motivate the behavior.

Challenge Four: Constantly communicate progress.

*Create a method to share information regularly.

*Let employees know where they stand.

*Host a quarterly vision review meeting.

10 common Email mistakes

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Mistake 1: Using the Wrong Tone

img_6954.jpgI was reading mind-tool article and thought to share with my readers.You might be tempted to send emails quickly when you’re in a rush, without thinking carefully about your audience, what you’re saying, or how your message might come across. So, it’s important to consider who you’re “talking” to and what action you want them to take, before you start writing.

For example, an email to a senior manager should be more formal than a quick update to a team member, and a message to a customer will likely be more enthusiastic and polite than an exchange with a close colleague.

Although your email’s subject matter may be clear to you, its recipient might not share your knowledge or understanding. So, avoid using abbreviations, jargon or “text speak,” and consider whether your message is appropriate before you hit the send button. Will your reader understand what you’re saying? And is your information clearly structured and presented?

A good rule to follow is to address people in an email as you would in person. For example, making a quick request or providing instructions without a “hello” or “thank you” will likely come across as rude, regardless of how busy you are. So, make sure that all of your emails are courteous and respectful, and avoid typing in capitals, which implies anger or aggression.

Mistake 2: Hitting “Reply All”

How often have you been copied into an email exchange that’s not relevant to you, and doesn’t require you to take any action? Chances are, it happens regularly, and you know how frustrating it can be.

“Reply all” is a useful tool for keeping multiple team members in the loop, or for documenting group decisions, but many people use it without considering who should actually receive their email.

Receiving numerous irrelevant emails throughout the day can be distracting and time consuming; and becoming known as the person who always hits “reply all” can potentially damage your reputation , as it can appear thoughtless, rushed and unprofessional. It might also suggest that you’re not confident making decisions without input from senior managers.

So, consider whether you should “reply all” or respond only to the email’s sender. And, think about whether using “cc” (carbon copy) or “bcc” (blind carbon copy) to include selected team members is more appropriate.

Mistake 3: Writing Too Much

Brief and succinct emails that contain only the important details are much more effective than long or wordy ones.

If you’re struggling to keep your message short, consider whether the subject matter is too complex. Would another way of communicating it be more effective? Would a face-to-face meeting or telephone call make it clearer? Should you put your information in a procedure document instead?

Mistake 4: Forgetting Something?

How many times have you sent an email without attaching the relevant document? Perhaps you included a link that didn’t work? Or even attached the wrong file?

These mistakes can often be fixed quickly with a follow-up email, but this adds to the large volume of messages that people receive, and it can appear unprofessional or forgetful. Consider attaching files as soon as your start drafting your message, and always check all of your links carefully.

Attaching the wrong document can be much more serious, particularly if it’s sensitive or restricted. Read our article on confidentiality in the workplace to identify what information is confidential in your organization, and to think about how to protect your data.

Mistake 5: Emailing the Wrong Person

Today, email providers increasingly use “auto-fill,” predictive text and “threads” (or “conversation view”), which can all increase the risk of you sending your message to the wrong person.

This can be embarrassing, but it also means that your email might not reach its intended recipient unless someone flags up your mistake. More seriously, you risk distributing sensitive information to the wrong people, and damaging your organization’s reputation. So, always pause to review your email before you send it.

When you reply to or forward an email within a thread, make sure that all the messages contained within it are appropriate for the recipient. Is there any sensitive information? Are there any personal comments or remarks?

Mistake 6: Being Too Emotional

One of the main benefits of email is that you don’t need to respond immediately. It’s particularly important to delay your response when you’re stressed, angry or upset – if you send a message in the heat of the moment, you can’t get it back (although some email clients do have a limited “undo” or “retrieve” option). These emails could damage your working relationships, or even be used as evidence against you.

So, avoid sending any messages when you feel this way. Wait until you’ve calmed down and can think clearly and rationally.

Mistake 7: Not Using “Delay Send”

It can be satisfying to send an email as soon as you finish writing it, so that it’s “off your desk.” However, many email clients now provide a “delay” or “scheduled send” function, which can be particularly useful.

Mistake 8: Using Vague Subject Lines

As we’ve said, email is most effective when your message is concise and to the point (but not abrupt). So, it’s important to start with a clear subject line, so that people know what to expect when they open it.

What is your email about? Is there an important deadline date? Do you want people to take action before a certain time? Is it urgent or non-urgent? Tailor your subject line accordingly, so your recipient can give the email the right level of priority and attention.

Mistake 9: Not Reviewing

Proofing your emails is one of the most important things you can do. It only takes a few minutes, and it helps you to pick up poor grammar, spelling mistakes and punctuation errors, which look unprofessional andsloppy . Our article on Writing Skills has more on how to check your work for mistakes.

It’s also important to ensure that you properly read and understand emails that are sent to you, including all messages in threads or conversations. Here, someone may have already dealt with your question or concern, and raising it again will likely result in duplication, frustration and confusion.

Finally, don’t add the recipient to your email until the last moment. This ensures that you can’t accidentally send your message before you’ve finished writing it, have added your attachment, checked the email, and spotted any errors.

Mistake 10: Sending Unnecessary Emails

Because email is so quick and convenient, it can easily become your default communication method with your team. However, it’s important to remember that email is also impersonal, and you risk losing touch with people if you rely on it too much. It’s certainly not a substitute for face-to-face or even phone communication.

Feedback

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Feedback is likely the most powerful tool leaders have for achieving engagement and performance improvement. Feedback can be defined as having an open and honest two-way conversation about performance that focuses on specifics and clearly defines desired future behaviors.

Screen Shot 2015-11-13 at 5.44.10 pmThe most critical element of the feedback process is the opening feedback statement — the first one or two sentences spoken by the person giving the feedback. These sentences set the tone of the conversation and influence the emotional and behavioral responses of the recipient. They should be descriptive and not judgmental. They should comment on behavior, not personality; be specific, rather than general; and avoid all-or-nothing words, such as “always” and “never.”They should focus on the effect of the behavior rather than the behavior or trait that may have caused it. They should be timely, and they should be upbeat in emphasizing that change is possible.

There are two general types of feedback:

  1. Reinforcing feedback provides recognition for positive patterns of behavior regularly demonstrated by the employee. It also seeks to encourage new positive behaviors that are not typical of the employee.
  2. Redirecting feedback seeks to change or redirect an undesired behavior the employee has shown.

For reinforcing feedback, leaders should open with a clear descriptive feedback statement that lets the employee know exactly what behavior is being valued. They should be sure to state the positive effect the behavior has, or will have, on the organization and should not assume the employee already knows this. Providing reinforcing feedback requires leaders to be confident enough in themselves that they can openly praise others.

Redirecting feedback can be more difficult to give. It can be challenging, for example, to keep the employee from deflecting the feedback, blaming others, or justifying the behavior. To make redirecting feedback more effective, leaders must:

* Open with a clear descriptive feedback statement.

* Ask why the person acted in the way he or she did rather than assuming why.

* State the effect the behavior has had on the organization and provide personal reactions to it.

* Collaboratively seek a solution, perhaps by asking how the situation might be rectified or done differently.

* Jointly develop an action plan for the solution.

* Agree on a follow-up procedure or meeting.

* Encourage the employee.